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  1. Introduction 
    a. Instructor Bio 
    b. Residential Energy Audit Objectives 
    c. Learning Outcomes

  2. Energy Basics 
    a. Definition/Forms of Energy 
    b. Energy Transformations 
    c. Units and Measurement 
    d. Changes in State 
    e. Energy Efficiency 
    f. Equations and Conversion Factors 
    g. Review Questions

  3. Utility Billing 
    a. Electricity 
    b. Natural Gas 
    c. Average $/Unit vs. Variable $/Unit 
    d. Base vs. Seasonal Energy Use 
    e. Estimating Annual Heating and Cooling Energy Use 
    f. Review Questions

  4. Principles of Heat Transfer 
    a. Introduction/Basic Principles 
    b. Heat Transfer by Conduction 
    - Factors in Conductive Heat Transfer 
       1. U-Values and R-Values 
       2. Temperature Difference 
    -Calculating Conductive Heat Transfer 
       1. Hourly Calculations 
       2. Annual Calculations using Heating Degree Days

  1. Principles of Heat Transfer (Cont.) 
    a. Heat Transfer by Convection 
    - Infiltration 
       1. Air Changes per Hour 
       2. Estimating/Measuring Infiltration Rates 
    - Calculating Infiltration Heat Transfer 
       1. Hourly Calculations 
       2. Annual Calculations using Cooling Degree Days 
    b. Radiant Heat Transfer 
    - Definition and Examples 
    - Calculating Solar Heat Gain Through Glass 
    - Reducing Solar Heat Gain 
    c. Equations and Conversion Factors 
    d. Review Questions

  2. Residential Energy Overview 
    a. Major Energy Users in the Home 
    b. Factors Affecting Home Energy Use

  3. Building Envelope 
    a. Definition and Examples 
    b. Heat Losses and Gains Through the Envelope 
    - Conduction 
    - Infiltration 
    - Radiant Gains 
    c. Building Envelope Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) 
    - Insulation 
       1. Attic/Ceiling Insulation and Ventilation 
       2. Exterior Wall Insulation and Vapor Retarders 
       3. Floor and Basement Insulation 
    - Air Sealing Measures 
       1. Finding Sources of Infiltration 
       2. Visual Inspection/Blower Door 
       3. Caulking, Weatherstripping and Other Sealing Measures 
       4. Indoor Air Quality Concerns 
    - Window Improvements/Energy Conservation Measures 
       1. Shading 
       2. Insulated Window Coverings 
       3. Storm Windows 
       4. Replacement Windows

  1. Building Envelope (Cont.) – 
    a. Calculating Energy and Cost Savings 
    - Adding Insulation 
      1. Calculating BTU Savings 
      2. Converting BTU Savings to Fuel Units and $ 
    - Other Building Envelope ECMs 
    - Example Calculations 
    - Equations and Conversion Factors 
    - Review Questions

  2. Space Heating and Air Conditioning 
    a. Factors affecting space heating and air conditioning energy use 
    - Efficiency of the Building Envelope 
    - Type and Efficiency of Heating and Cooling Systems 
      1. Cost per Million BTUs 
    -  Lifestyle Factors 
    b. Electric space heating systems 
    - Electric Resistance Heating Systems 
      1. Types 
      2. Operating Costs 
      3. Advantages/Disadvantages 
    - Heat Pumps 
      1. Basic Principles/Heat of Vaporization 
      2. Pressure, Temperature and Boiling Point 
      3. Vapor Compression Cycle 
      4. Components and Their Functions 
      5. Types of Heat Pumps/Air Source and Geothermal 
      6. Efficiency Ratings/Typical Efficiencies 
      7. Operating Cost Examples 
      8. Identifying a Heat Pump

  1. Space Heating and Air Conditioning (Cont.) 
    a. Fossil-fuel space heating systems 
    - Fossil Fuel Types 
    - Combustion and Combustion Air Requirements 
    - Efficiency Ratings/Typical Efficiencies 
    - Fossil Fuel Systems 
      1. Conventional Gas Furnace 
      2. High-Efficiency Condensing Furnace 
      3. Combination/Hybrid Systems 
      4. Dual-fuel Systems 
      5. Gas/Propane Boilers 
      6. Oil-fired Heating Systems

  2. Air Conditioning 
    a. Vapor Compression Cycle 
    b. Components and Their Functions 
    c. Central AC Systems – Split Systems and Packaged Units 
    - Cooling Capacity – Tons of Refrigeration 
    - Efficiency Ratings/Typical Efficiencies 
    d. Window and Wall Air Conditioners 
    - Efficiency Ratings/Calculating Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) 
    e. Ductless Air Conditioning Systems

  3. Heating and Air Conditioning Calculations 
    a. Estimating space heating and cooling energy use 
    b. Comparing different systems 
    c. Estimating energy savings from improvements or ECMs 
    d. Example Calculations

  4. Heating and Cooling Energy Conservation Measures 
    a. Equipment/system Replacement 
    - Factors to Consider (Age, efficiency) 
    - Example Calculations 
    b. Equipment/system Modifications and Maintenance 
    - Electric systems 
    - Natural gas or propane systems 
    - Fuel oil or kerosene systems 
    c. Low- or no-cost energy-saving practices 
    d. Equations and Conversion Factors 
    e. Review Questions

  1. Water Heating 
    a. Factors in water heating energy use 
    - Amount of hot water 
    - Degrees temperature rise 
    - Type and efficiency of the water heater 
    b. Electric water heaters 
    - Electric resistance storage type 
    - On-demand/tankless 
    - Heat pump water heaters 
    - Heat recovery units 
    c. Gas water heaters 
    - Storage type 
    - Tankless/on-demand 
    d. Other water heating options 
    - Oil or kerosene water heaters 
    - Indirect water heating 
    - Solar water heating 
    e. Water heating energy calculations 
    - Calculating water heating BTUs 
    - Converting BTUs to fuel units and $ 
    f. Water heating ECMs 
    - Replacement water heater 
    - Flow-reducing devices 
    - Energy-saving practices 
    g. Equations and Conversion Factors 
    h. Review Questions

  2. Lighting and Appliances 
    a. Residential lighting – types 
    - Incandescent lighting 
    - Compact fluorescents 
    - LEDs and other options 
    - Outdoor security lighting – types and controls 
    b. Lighting efficiency 
    c. Lighting energy calculations 
    i. Calculating lighting energy use (kWh) and cost 
    d. Lighting ECMs 
    - Reducing wattage 
    - Reducing hours of use 
    - Examples – calculating kWh and $ savings 
    e. Residential appliances 
    - Refrigerators and freezers 
    - Laundry and kitchen appliances 
    - Electronics and home office equipment 
    f. Appliance energy calculations 
    - Appliances with “on/off” switch 
    - Appliances that cycle thermostatically 
    - Description 
    - Examples of Qualification Criteria 
    h. Appliance ECMs 
    - Energy-saving practices – examples by appliance type

  1. Financial Calculations, Tax Credits and Other Incentives 
    a. Simple payback calculations 
    - “Yes or No” vs. “Option A or Option B” 
    b. Federal tax credits for qualifying ECMs 
    - Examples 
    c. Equations and Conversion Factors 
    d. Review Questions

  2. Residential Energy Audit Overview 
    a. Types of Residential Energy Audits 
    - Basic Walk-through Audit 
      1. Brief descriptions/highlights 
      2. Advantages/Disadvantages 
    - More Detailed Audit with Computer 
      1. Brief descriptions/highlights 
      2. Advantages/Disadvantages 
    - Comprehensive or “High-tech” Audit 
      1. Brief descriptions/highlights 
      2. Advantages/Disadvantages 
    b. Residential Energy Audit Benefits 
    - To the Customer 
    - To the Utility 
    - To Society 
    c. Home Rating Systems 
    - Brief Overview 
    d. Energy Star Homes 
    e. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) for Homes
  3. Conducting a Residential Energy Audit 
    a. Tools/supplies 
    b. Preparation 
    c. What to look for 
    d. Measurements/calculations needed 
    e. Diagnostic Tools and Instruments 
    - Blower door 
    - Duct Blaster® 
    - Thermal Imaging/Infrared 
    - Other Diagnostic Tools 
      1. Carbon monoxide detectors 
      2. Combustion gas analyzers 
      3. Moisture probes/meters 
    f. Energy Auditing Software 
    g. Presenting the Recommendations/Concluding the Audit 
    h. Equations and Conversion Factors 
    i. Review Questions 
    j. Conclusion /Recommended Follow-up Activities
Fundamentals Of Residential Energy Audits - Module 1
F. J. Walsh & Associates Utility Consulting & Support Services
FRANK WALSH has over 25 years experience in residential energy efficiency and utility marketing programs. Prior to starting F. J. Walsh & Associates in 1996, Frank spent 12 years with A&C Enercom. He served as the company’s expert in residential energy efficiency, providing clients with program design and development, general energy efficiency consulting, and training on various energy-related topics. He has developed energy efficiency and marketing programs for clients including Edison Electric Institute, Tennessee Valley Authority, National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Georgia Power Company, and Entergy Corporation. Frank has conducted numerous training seminars for utility staff, builders and other utility trade allies, on topics including residential energy auditing, energy-efficient new home design and construction, and using efficiency as a marketing tool. He has also taught residential heating and cooling load calculations and duct design to both utility representatives and HVAC contractors.
Fundamentals Of Residential Energy Audits - Module 2
Fundamentals Of Residential Energy Audits - Module 3
Fundamentals Of Residential Energy Audits - Module 4
Fundamentals Of Residential Energy Audits - Module 5
Fundamentals Of Residential Energy Audits - Module 6
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PDH: 12.00
AEE Re-certification: 2.40
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